Periodontology – Gum Diseases
Periodontology – Gum Diseases
It is even possible to lose non-decayed healthy teeth due to diseases of the gums. Therefore, the protection of gum and bone health, also known as the surrounding tissues, is as important as the protection of dental health.
The color of healthy gums is light pink. It is tough and matt. Gums that end sharply when they reach the surface of the tooth are considered healthy. Gums that do not bleed during brushing are also known as healthy.
Gum disease is an inflammatory disease usually caused by bacteria plaque deposited on the teeth.
Bacterial plaque is a light yellow sticky, soft layer of bacteria that forms on the teeth over time. The chemicals secreted by the bacteria contained in the bacterial plaque damage the gums and the bone under the gum, causing gum disease.
If the plaque is not removed from the tooth surface, tartar formation is seen on the surface. In the first stage, the soft plaque is hardened by the precipitation of minerals in the saliva and calculus is formed.
Symptoms such as gum swelling, redness, bleeding when brushing, displacement and elongation of teeth, odor in mouth, gingival recession are observed in people with gum disease. The most common symptom is gum bleeding.
Gingivitis is called se periodonititis sa if the inflammation only affects the gums, and if it affects the bone tissue under the gums. Inflammation of the gum can reach the bone if left untreated. If the inflammation in the bones is left untreated, the teeth begin to shake and the danger of loss over time begins.
Perodontitis, which is generally seen in adults and has a slow development, is a chronic type. There are no symptoms other than the known symptoms of gum disease. So it can be noticed late. Gradually damages the supporting bone tissue.
It is a type of inflammatory disease that is more severe in young people and results in bone loss. Genetic factors also affect the formation of aggressive periodontitis.
The rule that applies to all gum diseases is oral cleansing and cleaning of calculus. Antibiotics may be used by the physician during treatment depending on the condition of the disease. If necessary, surgical intervention is performed.
If only the gum is affected by gum disease, dental calculus cleaning and oral hygiene is sufficient. Scaling is a process applied to the surface of the tooth with special tools and should be done regularly every 6 months.
If the gum disease reaches advanced levels, a procedure called et curettage gerek may be necessary. In the curettage process, the tooth tissue is also removed from the calculus.
Surgical operation may be necessary if bone loss occurs in the later stages of gum disease. At this stage, laser assisted surgical procedures can be performed.
It may be necessary to remove pockets from gingival disease or to cut out a portion of the gum tissue in order to obtain an aesthetic gingival structure that is easy to clean in areas with gum growth caused by the disease. This procedure is called gingivectomy. The process is carried out by conventional means or by laser.
In cases where bone loss is severe, the method used to directly interfere with the bone tissue under the gum is defined as “flap operation”. Gingival tissue and pockets are removed by operation. Bone irregularities are eliminated and bone treatment is applied if necessary.
In case of loss of bone tissue around the teeth, natural and artificial bone particles used to support the teeth are called “bone dust.. Bone powders are sometimes obtained from the patient and sometimes ready ones are used. Ready-made bone powders are obtained from animals or are synthetic.
After the surgical methods applied to the bone, the fibrous barriers used for healing the wound faster and protecting the area are membranes. Membranes may also be synthetic or natural, such as bone powders.
The surgical method applied to eliminate the aesthetic problems in the gums is called pink surgery or perodontal surgery. It is performed in cases of insufficient gingiva, gingival recession and high muscle bonds. With the pink aesthetics, which are harmonized with the white aesthetic created by the teeth, the root surfaces are closed and the formation of caries is prevented.
Laser treatment can be used in addition to conventional methods or alone. Laser treatment methods vary. The laser process called Wavelenght-optimized Periodontal Therapy is shortened to WPT. After the removal of dental calculus to the bones that are not lost, foreign tissues on the surface of the teeth and gums are removed. Some cases requiring open surgery can be treated with the same method.
Cleaning the dental stones does not damage the tooth surface. On the contrary, deposits on the surface are removed and a smooth surface is obtained.
There is no pain in dental calculus cleaning. Patients only feel the vibration of the devices used. However, local anesthesia is applied to patients with sensitivity problems in their teeth.
Tooth cleaning every 6 months is essential for oral and dental health. Tooth cleaning should be done even if it is not a problem.
To prevent gum disease, bacteria must first be prevented. This is possible by regular cleaning of the teeth. In addition, cleaning of the calculus periodically provides protection from disease.
To prevent tooth decay and gum disease at least twice a day should be brushed teeth.
The toothbrush should not be wetted before brushing the teeth.
The head of the toothbrush should be medium hard and small.
Toothpaste should be used in the size of nuts.
The toothbrush should be held at an angle of 45 degrees to the area where the teeth and gums meet, making a circular motion 10 times. The chewing surface of the tooth should be brushed with forward and backward movements.
Dental floss and interface brush should be used after brushing.
Oral care mouthwashes should be used.
Normal toothbrushes or electrically charged brushes can be used for tooth brushing. There is no difference between these two types of toothbrushes in terms of the effect applied to the plaque.
Battery-powered or electric toothbrushes; produced as an alternative to classic toothbrushes. Soft bristle brushes should be selected. Tooth brushing should continue for at least 2 minutes.
Toothbrushes should be renewed on average every 3 months.
Exposure of the root surface of the gum and its displacement towards the root end is called gingival recession.
The causes of gingival recession are usually the loss of bone tissue around the tooth as a result of advanced gum disease. Another reason is to brush the teeth with the wrong technique and hard. Clenching and grinding habits can also cause gingival recession.
In the case of gum recession, the cause of the recession is determined and eliminated. Then, the root surfaces resulting from the removal of the gums can be closed by surgical operation.
The reason for gingival sensitivity is cold, hot, sour, sweet and acidic foods due to root surfaces that result from gum disease.
In the treatment of gingival sensitivity, desensitizing agents are applied to the root surface of the tooth and laser applications are performed.
Bone loss increases as a result of gum disease due to the effect of smoking on the gums and impaired function of the cells. Smoking affects the outcome of the treatment of gum disease.
Gum disease triggers the development of diseases such as stroke, heart attack, lung diseases, premature birth, miscarriage and diabetes.
Gum problems do not occur due to hormonal changes during pregnancy. However, an existing gum disease may occur during this process. Necessary checks should be performed before and at the beginning of pregnancy.
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